Friday, November 9, 2012

Сказать and its siblings

  Сказать (to say) is a very common Russian word. Knowing it, you can easily learn a few more words that contain сказать. Think of Russian language as Lego – you can build new words by adding prefixes, suffixes, even other words. Let's look at what can be done with сказать.

сказать — to say, to tell, to speak
рассказать — to tell, to narrate
предсказать — to predict (from перед - before)
подсказать — to direct, to prompt
высказать, высказаться — to speak out, to express oneself
пересказать — to paraphrase, to retell

From these verbs you can make nouns:

сказка — fairytale
рассказ — (short) story
рассказчик — storyteller, narrator
предсказание — prediction, prophecy
предсказатель — soothsayer, prophet
подсказка — hint, prompt, cue
высказывание — observation, statement
пересказ — retelling, rendering

Сказать has -каз- for its root, с- is its prefix. Drop it, and you get to make even more words.

приказать — to order
приказ — order
отказать — to refuse, to deny
отказ — refusal, denial
наказать — to punish
наказание — punishment
указать — to point out, to indicate
указ — decree, order
указка — pointer, batoon

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